Short Essay On Types Of Pollution And Its Effects

Different Types of Pollution

Environment refers to the natural world. Environment refers surrounding (such as air, water, land) and their inter-relationship with human beings and other living species.

The flora anywhere on the earth, the soil and the stones, the rivers and water bodies, the sky and the air, the seas and the oceans, the fauna everywhere in the world, the climate and the interior of the earth – all combine together to form the environment.

Pollution comes from the Latin ‘polluere’ which means to contaminate. So, pollution is something that contaminates the environment.

Pollution means the presence of substance in the air, water, and land, which has adverse effects on living organs and on environment. Our environment is in danger due to pollution.

The atmosphere is being polluted by discharge of emissions from industrial plants, domestic sources, running vehicles, which burns fossil fuel and from thermal power etc. Public health and hygiene are seriously effected in the cities of developed and developing countries by presence of Sulphur dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Carbon monoxide, Hydro carbon substance, etc.

Also read: Essay on Environmental Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solution


The various types of environmental pollution includes air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, radioactive pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, oil pollution, marine pollution, plastic pollution, etc. They are each discussed below:

1. Air pollution

Air pollution means the presence of pollutants in the atmosphere is such concentration that causes injury to human being and plants.

Air pollution is the name for anything that makes the air dirty. Thus, air pollution is anything that contaminates the air and makes it harmful to breathe for humans, animals and birds.

Of course, air pollution will depend on the context: some things may be counted as air pollution in some contexts, but not in others. But, in sum, air pollution can be defined as:

  • Anything that contaminates the air.
  • Something that makes the air dangerous to breathe.
  • Potentially dependent on the context.

Air pollution can be both indoor and outdoor as follows:

  • Indoor air pollution: Indoor air pollution is the pollution of the air in enclosed spaces such as our homes, shops, schools and other businesses. It can be caused by numerous things, like smoke from a domestic fireplace or the emission of gases inside a factory. It can be controlled by using detectors to detect pollution within the home or business and then controlling emissions. Chimneys may be used but these can simply cause outdoor air pollution instead.
  • Outdoor air pollution: Outdoor air pollution is the pollution of the air outdoors. It is usually caused by the emission of polluting gases from the burning of fossil fuels in industry, car exhausts and air travel. It can be limited by reducing the emissions that we create in both homes and businesses, by reducing our reliance on fossil fuels and by traveling less by car and by plane.

Causes: Air mainly polluted by Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Sulphur dioxide, etc. Example of air pollutants.

  • Smoke: this can fill the air with particles of soot that make it physically dirty.
  • Gases: poisonous gases are particularly dangerous.

Effects:The problems of air pollution.

  1. Damaging to respiratory health.
  2. Makes buildings grimy.
  3. Aggravates allergies.
  4. Causes diseases.
  5. Reduces biodiversity.

Solution: Air pollution can be checked by increasing forest and protecting forests. Industry should be placed long distance from residential areas.

We should be careful and alert that our surrounding on our houses, streets, drains are cleaned. Smoke free furnaces should be used. Electric engines should be used more and not steam or diesel engines. Lastly air pollution can be better controlled by way of combined effort of Government and by private efforts.

Also read: Short essay on air pollution

2. Water pollution

Water pollution means contamination of water with physical, chemical or biological properties of water due to discharge of industrial effluent or any other liquid, gases or solid substance into water which is harmful for public health of commercial activities or in agriculture.

Sources: Domestic waste water and dirty municipal waste or sewage are the chief source of water pollution. Also read, major sources of water pollution.

Effects: Water pollution has had effects on human life. Water are polluted in different sources such as by gases, dirty soil, minerals, humans’ materials, dead body of animals and other living organisms.

Solution: Water pollution can largely be controlled by proper treatment of domestic and municipal effluents. Domestic water and sewage can rightly be mixed with soil which will increase fertility. The industries must not discharge toxic water in the land. Also read, different ways to prevent water pollution.

Also read: Short paragraph on water pollution

3. Soil pollution

Soil pollution mainly occurs through agricultural chemicals. These are pesticides and fertilizers. These pesticides directly or indirectly injure other animals and human being.

Reasons: Land-ship, volcanic eruption, very strong wind current, torrential downpour, etc. are the natural phenomena which may partly contribute to creating soil pollution. The chief reason of soil pollution lies in the multifarious activities of man.

The contaminated sweepings and all sorts of refuses and garbage of the industrial establishment and of homes and homesteads, various types of chemicals and radio-active left-over etc., mainly cause soil pollution.

Also read: Sources of water, wir and soil pollution

Control: The very harmful garbage and the unwholesome sweepings can be used to produce Bio-gas and manure. Use of pro-environment fertilizers and insecticides in agriculture are to be restored to. Proper precautionary measures are to be adopted while using the radio-active ingredients or implements.

Propagation of consciousness regarding soil pollution and other such means may materially help top control land or soil pollution.

Also read: Essay on soil pollution

4. Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution refers to the presence of unwanted and undesired radioactive substances that radiates ionizing radiation in the environment and its surroundings. Such radiation is very harmful for the environment.

Sources of Radioactive Pollution: Various types of atomic refuses are the main sources of radioactive radiation. The cosmic rays coming down from the outer space are the sources of radioactivity. Again, the radioactive elements lying inside the earth are the sources of the radioactivity on earth.

Effects of radioactivity: The influence of radio-activities on human beings has become very harmful in the present century. The effects of radioactivity are generally divided into three classes, such as, instantaneous reaction, long-term reaction and a very retarded reaction.

Preventive measures: Various preventive measures are being resorted to today through the world for getting rid of this terrible danger of radiation of radioactive rays. These measures include:

  • Adoption of special anti-radiation measures.
  • The atomic refuses must be shifted scientifically to any safe area of the environment for proper interpolation.
  • All people connected with radioactive production or program must be made aware of the direct or indirect adverse reaction of radioactivity.
  • Properly trained people should only be allowed to work the nuclear research centers and treatment centers as well.
  • All people professionally connected with any such project must put on their special type of radioactive preventive costume.
  • The well-defined rules and regulation related to Nuclear energy ought to be abided by all.

Also read: Radiation pollution: Sources and effects of radiation pollution

5. Noise Pollution

One of the greatest problems of modern times is the sound or noise pollution. It refers to the presence of excessive sound or noise in the environment. It is often harmful for human and animal health.

Noise pollution is caused by large industries, vehicles such as cars, buses and lorries, etc. Besides these, the periodic sounds of hammering connected with some construction or repair work can be quite maddening.

Loud speakers blaring film music during festive occasions and speeches at political rallies or some other obscure cause add to the cacophony. The silence we so desperately long for seem unattainable.

Also read: Short paragraph on noise pollution

6. Light pollution

Light pollution is caused by excess light contaminating the dark sky and making it artificially light.

Causes of light pollution: Lights that are left on – in both commercial premises and private residences – throughout the night are key causes of light pollution.

Effects of light pollution: Light pollution can disrupt the habitats of animals who rely on natural cycles of light and darkness to tell them when to wake up and when to rest. It can cause stress and disrupted sleep to humans. It can also make stargazing and astronomy difficult due to blocking out starlight.

Control measures: Turning lights off at night time and installing street lamps that do not scatter light up towards the sky will help to control light pollution.

Also read: Light Pollution: Meaning, Causes, Effects, Solutions

7. Oil pollution

Oil pollution means oil that has contaminated the land or the sea.

Causes of oil pollution: Oil spills as a result of oil tankers being wrecked or breaking are the main causes of oil pollution.

Effects of oil pollution: Damage to marine habitats and to marine animals (such as fish, gulls and whales).

Control measures: Reducing our dependence on oil as a fuel, and ensuring the safety of all ships that use oil as fuel or transport oil tankers.

Also read: Oil Pollution: Meaning, Causes, Effects, Preventive and Control Measures

8. Marine pollution

Marine pollution is presence of substances that contaminates the sea.

Causes of marine pollution: Sewage, oil spills, chemical runoff from industry and plastics and other waste from human lives are major pollutants in the sea. Polluting gases such as CO2 or sulfur dioxide can also dissolve in the sea and pollute it.

Effects of marine pollution: The acidification of the oceans and the destruction of marine habitats (thus in its turn leading to the death of marine organisms and the extinction of several species) are some of the main effects of marine pollution.

Control measures: Reducing waste and fossil fuel use and preventing chemical runoff and oil spills will help to protect the sea from pollution.

Also read: Marine Pollution: Meaning, Causes, Effects, Control Measures

9. Plastic pollution

Plastic pollution means plastic products – such as old milk cartons – contaminating the land or the water on planet earth.

Causes of plastic pollution: Humans throwing away plastics carelessly rather than placing them in landfill responsibly or recycling them.

Effects of plastic pollution: Large ‘islands’ of plastic waste have formed in our seas. When ingested by marine animals, as they frequently are, they can cause digestive complications and death.

Also read: Plastic Pollution: Meaning, Causes, Effects and Solutions

Control measures: Reducing our use of plastics, recycling them wherever possible, and disposing of them in environmentally responsible ways.

Contributors: (1) Vikash, (2) Laura.

Compiled by Editor.

Category: EnvironmentTagged With: Pollution

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One of the most common essay topics is the issue of environmental pollution. We can find many examples of works on it that have been done before, so it might be pretty hard to discuss it and discover something new.

Anyway, there is no reason for disappointment. Please, find an example of the essay on the pollution problem that can be used as a guide for your future works on this topic.

Essay on a Pollution Problem

Environmental pollution is one of the main threats for our planet. Pollution destroys the living environment and endangers human existence on Earth. No doubt, the economy finds many benefits in technological development. However, toxic emissions due to the work of factories, transportation, construction sites pollute the environment substantially. As the environmental pollution is a broad topic consisting of many sub-issues, there may be many approaches to building the consistent pollution essay. For instance, the pollution essay may concentrate on the various types of pollution, like sound pollution (noise pollution), water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution etc. Each paragraph of the essay will describe the separate type of the environmental pollution. Another suggestion is writing the pollution essay that highlights the consequences of pollution problems including the global warming effect, natural resources extinction, health problems of people and animals, the destruction of natural ecosystems, etc. The essay may also describe the causes of the pollution problems. Each paragraph, then, will be dedicated to one of the five main causes: industrial and technological development, transportation, agricultural activities, trading activities, and residences of people. Once you have selected the issue for the essay, you may draft the outline and move on to the analysis of the research and literature. The statistical data and approaches to pollution examination transform and improve over the time. So it is significant that you base your essay on credible and up-to-date sources. You may also look online for the essay sample on the pollution topic. However, you are encouraged to perform the research and develop your own paper first. The essay sample may be used as a practical tool and the structural example to follow.

Pollution Essay Sample

The population of our planet is increasing constantly. The population growth, unfortunately, has many adverse effects, one of which is the pollution problems. Pollution is a process of contaminating the environment in a way that it becomes unsafe to use. The contamination usually occurs through the chemical substances; however is not limited to tangible effects. The pollution can also take the form of the light, sound (noise pollution), or heat. The effects of pollution are devastative. The report of the NGO Pure Earth suggests that one of the seven deaths occurs due to pollution. Another comparison shows that pollution kills 60% more people than malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. In this light, it is important to explore the various types of pollution and its effects on the environment and human beings.

One of the pivotal issues nowadays is the water pollution. The enlargement of the population means more trash and garbage. The rubbish dumps decay and the toxic substances permeate the soil going to the rivers and oceans. Moreover, tons of garbage are thrown directly into the water. There are even special islands for garbage in the oceans.

Even though the technological development offers various approaches to garbage utilization, most of the poor countries do not utilize innovative technologies. Thus, pollution becomes the leading cause of death in underdeveloped low-income countries. Nevertheless, water is contaminated not only due to regular garbage utilization. The plants, factories and mills are the key pollutants of the water. The process water from factories goes to the rivers and seas in neighborhood areas. In some rivers, the water is contaminated to the critical level and is banned from using. The fish and living environment of natural ecosystems are contaminated by dangerous chemicals that causes either the death of the entire ecosystems or hurts the consumers of the contaminated products (seafood, fish, water, salt).

Additionally, water is polluted by pesticides and fertilizations used in agriculture. The devastating effects of water pollution may be decelerated by installing the water purification mechanisms at factories and plants. These efforts should be promoted and enhanced on the governmental level. Moreover, states should develop the global programs of the environment protection as the problem is not limited to a particular territory or state. It is a universal hazard that requires combined efforts.

Another big humanity’s challenge is air pollution. Air consists of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. When the typical structure of air is altered, we can observe the effects of air pollution. The primary reason of air contamination is the effect of the burning fuels. The smoke floats in the air and most people breath it in. Further, it affects the health resulting in respiratory diseases, cancers and other problems. Another type of air pollutants are dangerous gases, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and chemical vapors. Those gases undergo the reactions in the higher atmosphere layers and return to the surface in the form of the dangerous chemicals (acid rains) that ruin the living environment. Moreover, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide create the so-called “greenhouse effect” when the radiation is absorbed while the heat is prevented from escaping. It is a natural process.

However, the high concentration of the gases makes Earth warmer and affects the natural processes on the planet. Thus, air pollution is one of the contributors to the global warming.

One of the least discussed problems is sound pollution. People tend to underestimate this problem because it is not possible to smell, see or touch it. However, noise pollution also has negative effects on the environment and people. The research shows that many illnesses are connected to noise pollution, such as hearing loss, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and speech interference. The industrial noises also affect the lives of animals. For example, whales’ navigation system breaks down due to the sounds of ships. Besides, the industrial noise makes wild species communicate louder which requires additional efforts and decreases their life spans.

The growth of population and technological progress have imprints on the ecological stage of Earth. The extraction of natural sources, work of factories and plants, and other products of human activity result in various environmental problems. The pollution of water, air and sound have extremely negative effects on our environment. The effects of the pollution include acid rains, detrimental diseases and illnesses of people and animals, and global warming. The environmental pollution is the global problem that calls for radical actions for environment protection and rehabilitation. More than that, the problem should be resolved on a global level by the united efforts of the global community.

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