Locke And Hobbes Compare And Contrast Essay Topics

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Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are two political philosophers who are famous for their theories about the formation of the society and discussing man in his natural state.
Their theories are both psychologically insightful, but in nature, they are drastically different. Although they lived in the same timeframe, their ideas were derived from different events happening during this time. Hobbes drew his ideas on man from observation, during a time of civil strife in Europe during the 1640's and 1650's. Locke drew his ideas from a time where Hobbes did not have the chance to observe the, glorious revolution. In uncivilized times, in times before government, Hobbes asserted the existence of continual war with "every man, against every man."…show more content…

This convention holds in our society and is revealed through in everyday items such as keys. We lock our cars and houses so that others are physically prevented from having access to what is ours, an observation Hobbes himself makes. Control, security and limitation are encountered in each person?s daily life. Behind this control is politics. In our society, authority decides what is right and wrong, good and evil; essentially what we are protected against and what we are not.

John Locke kept more optimistic beliefs. In the state of nature men mostly kept their promises and honored their obligations, and believed man is reasonable rather than selfish as according to Hobbes. Locke maintained that the original state of nature was happy and characterized by reason and tolerance. He further maintained that all human beings, in their natural state, were equal and free to pursue life, health, liberty, and possessions; and that these were inalienable rights.

He stated that men in its nature are independent and equal and the reason for why person will join the society is the willingness to avoid the conflicts and war that will provide the security for this person. Humans know what is right and wrong, and are capable of knowing what is lawful and unlawful well enough to resolve conflicts. In particular, and most importantly, they are capable of telling the difference between what is theirs and what belongs to someone else.

Compare And Contrast The Philosophies Of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, And Karl Marx

In the idea of human nature; origin of state, the nature of government, the rights of regulation can be drawn as the reflection of insightful philosophies of John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and Karl Marx. By understanding this within the context of human nature, we can see their ideas play to how they perceive a modern philosophy. Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto illustrates the desire to build "a society without economic classes". John Locke's Political Theory claims the establishment of natural rights which will assist protest against unjust rulers. Thomas Hobbes's most famous publication, the "Leviathan" defines a government which unifies the collective will of many individual and unites them under the authority of sovereign power. Although the three philosophers desire the same result through their theories, its practices and use have indicated that there are difference and similarities both present. All are saying that there should be absolute government, but their areas of specialization are different.

Karl Marx and Thomas Hobbes both agreed on the theory of collectivism over individualism. Marx is more quantitative and calculative in his reasoning, while Hobbes's theories are based on natural laws. The contradiction between Marx's and Hobbes's concepts of material wealth is that -"Modern society view men to compete with each other for material goods and that is just. Humans do not live in isolation but work to achieve together a society that turns a blind eye to what is alienating man from his nature" (Marx). On the other hand, Hobbes argued that "Rights of liberty, property can be transferred from one person to another by means of legal contract. Human beings are naturally selfish, therefore they are always in the state of conflict of 'war' with each other, unless they are forced to obey a sovereign authority or governing power." Though, differences between the two are quite visible, their goal is the same, the establishment and betterment of a civil society.

Hobbes famous saying about the state of nature was, "Life is brutish, short and harsh, in the state of nature." Humans are always in competition for resources, primary or secondary and would go to any extent to meet those needs. This desperation to fulfill needs creates insecurity within the human society. Hobbes uses the term "Leviathan" which refers to the best way of protecting citizens would be to have a government that is powerful and intimidating. According to Locke,...

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